Nodulated plants grown in a greenhouse were more "vigorous," produced darker green foliage, and had "somewhat" higher foliar nitrogen concentrations than plants without nodules . Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49.
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For more information on distinguishing varieties see [52,83,86,105,113,125,201].
The wide range in plant, leaf, and fruit sizes and form is reduced slightly with the recognition of curlleaf mountain-mahogany varieties; however, the lack of agreement among systematists in the recognition of varieties confounds any discussion of differing traits.
Curlleaf mountain-mahogany produces achenes with a long, persistent, plumose style or tail. Seeds measure 0.2 to 0.4 inch (4-10 mm) long, and tails are often 1 to 3 inches (2.5-8 cm) long [19,79,83,85,86,105,143,198,228]. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native species of New Mexico and Arizona.
Mountain-mahogany species are reproductively mature at 10 to 15 years old . Researchers suggest that good curlleaf mountain mahogany seed crops are produced at 2- to 10-year intervals [157,179].
However, periodic failure to regenerate may not be important for this long-lived (over 700 years) plant [40,42].
Variable seed production and/or lack of conditions favorable to germination and establishment may have contributed to poor regeneration. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. Reproduction was considered poor in 19 curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities scattered throughout Utah. Seedling density ranged from 0 to 230 seedlings/acre and averaged 37/acre. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Of 22 curlleaf mountain-mahogany stands in southwestern Montana, only 7 had seedlings . Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). The scientific name of curlleaf mountain-mahogany is Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. The following varieties are recognized, although not consistently: C. Several studies indicate that the number of seedlings in a given stand is highly variable, suggesting that the necessary conditions for successful seed germination, emergence, and establishment do not co-occur regularly. Researchers calculated that nodulated plants could add 6.9 kg/ha of total nitrogen in a 200-day growing season in areas with a continuous curlleaf mountain-mahogany canopy . In the San Bernardino Mountains of California, soil taken from limber pine-curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities had more total nitrogen than soils where limber pine grew without curlleaf mountain-mahogany.