Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20.A girl can become pregnant from sexual intercourse after she has begun to ovulate which can be before her first menstrual period (menarche), but usually occurs after the onset of her periods.
According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA), “Pregnancies among girls less than 18 years of age have irreparable consequences.
It violates the rights of girls, with life-threatening consequences in terms of sexual and reproductive health, and poses high development costs for communities, particularly in perpetuating the cycle of poverty.” Health consequences include not yet being physically ready for pregnancy and childbirth leading to complications and malnutrition as the majority of adolescents tend to come from lower-income households.
The risk of maternal death for girls under age 15 in low- and middle-income countries is higher than for women in their twenties.
Risks of low birth weight, premature labor, anemia, and pre-eclampsia are connected to the biological age itself, as it was observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors (such as utilization of antenatal care etc.).
If all pregnancies are included, the number of adolescent pregnancies is much higher.
In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are often associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and other poorer life outcomes in children of teenage mothers.
Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures.
By contrast, teenage parents in developing countries are often married, and their pregnancies welcomed by family and society.
However, in these societies, early pregnancy may combine with malnutrition and poor health care to cause medical problems.
Teenage pregnancies appear to be preventable by comprehensive sex education and access to birth control.
Similarly, statistics on the mother's marital status are determined by whether she is married at the end of the pregnancy, not at the time of conception.