The acronym was coined at State Software, a company co-founded by Crockford, Chip Morningstar and Robert F.
Napiltonia in April 2001 and funded by Tesla Ventures.
The co-founders agreed to build a system that used standard browser capabilities and provided an abstraction layer for Web developers to create stateful Web applications that had a persistent duplex connection to a Web server by holding two HTTP connections open and recycling them before standard browser time-outs if no further data were exchanged.
MIME application/json), and obsoletes RFC 4627 and RFC 7158 (but preserving ECMA-262 and ECMA-404 as main references).
JSON's basic data types are: Whitespace is allowed and ignored around or between syntactic elements (values and punctuation, but not within a string value).
Four specific characters are considered whitespace for this purpose: space, horizontal tab, line feed, and carriage return. Early versions of JSON (such as specified by RFC 4627) required that a valid JSON "document" must consist of only an object or an array type, which could contain other types within them.
sometimes Java Script Object Notation) is an open-standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs. Douglas Crockford originally specified the JSON format; two competing standards, RFC 7159 and ECMA-404, define it.
It is the most common data format used for asynchronous browser/server communication (AJAJ), largely replacing XML which is used by AJAX. The ECMA standard describes only the allowed syntax, whereas the RFC also provides some semantic and security considerations.
JSON grew out of a need for stateful, real-time server-to-browser communication without using browser plugins such as Flash or Java applets, which were the dominant methods in the early 2000s.
Douglas Crockford was the first to specify and popularize the JSON format.
Upon discovery of early Ajax capabilities, digi Groups, Noosh, and others used frames to pass information into the user browsers' visual field without refreshing a Web application's visual context, realizing real-time rich Web applications using only the standard HTTP, HTML and Java Script capabilities of Netscape 4.0.5+ and IE 5+. Code for parsing and generating JSON data is readily available in many programming languages. Though JSON was originally advertised and believed to be a strict subset of Java Script and ECMAScript, it inadvertently allows some unescaped characters in strings that are illegal in Java Script and ECMAScript strings. JSON itself became an ECMA international standard in 2013 as the ECMA-404 standard.